The objective of the paper is to present the through-flow design of a twin-shaft oxy-fuel turbine. The through-flow design is the subsequent step after the turbine mean-line design. The through-flow phase analyses the flow in both axial and radial directions, where the flow is computed from hub to tip and along streamlines. The parameterization of the through-flow is based on the mean-line results, so principal features such as blade angles at the mean-line into the through-flow phase should be retained. Parameters such as total inlet pressure and temperature, mass flow, rotation speed and turbine geometries are required for the through-flow modelling.
The through-flow study was performed using commercial software — AxCent(™) from Concepts NREC. The rotation speed of the twin-shaft power turbine was set to 7200 rpm, while the power turbine was set to 4800 rpm. The mean-line design determined that the twin-shaft turbine should be designed with two compressor turbine stages and three power turbine stages.
The through-flow objective was to study the variations in the thermodynamic parameters along the blade. The power turbine last-stage design was studied because of the importance of determining exit Mach number distribution of the rotor tip. The last stage was designed with damped forced condition. The term ‘damped’ is used because the opening from the tip to the hub is limited to a certain value rather than maintaining the full concept of forced vortex.
The study showed the parameter distribution of relative Mach number, total pressure and temperature, relative flow angle and tangential velocity. Through-flow results at 50% span and mean-line results showed reasonable agreement between static pressure, total pressure, reaction degree and total efficiency. Other parameters such as total temperature and relative Mach number showed some difference which can be attributed to working fluid in AxCent being pure CO2. The relative tip Mach number at rotor exit was 1.03, which is lower than the maximum typically allowed value of 1.2. The total pressure distribution was smooth from hub to tip which minimizes the spanwise gradient of total pressure and thus reduces the strength of secondary vortices. The reaction degree distribution was presented in the paper and no problems were revealed in the reaction degree at the hub. Rotor blades were designed to produce a smooth exit relative flow angle distribution. The relative flow angle varied by approximately 5° from hub to tip. The tangential velocity distribution was proportional to blade radius, which coincided with forced vortex design. Through-flow design showed that the mean-line design of a twin-shaft oxy-fuel turbine was suitable.