A generic real-time hydroelectric plant simulator has been implemented and validated. The simulator has the capability to run entirely in a simulation mode or to use actual control components running in parallel with simulated components. This flexibility results in a wide range of applicability, for example, it may be used for training of I&C personnel, tuning of turbine governors or testing the performance of actual control equipment. A further important feature of the simulator is its generic nature. A user-friendly interface is employed to parameterize any particular hydroelectric unit that uses a Pelton, Kaplan, or Francis turbine. The simulator includes mathematical models for the major systems in a hydroelectric plant, namely, hydraulic system (dam, water conduits, and turbine), electric generation (synchronous generator and excitation system) and power system (electrical grid). The simulator has been implemented on a GNU/Linux operative system with a Fedora Core 6 distribution and within a complete simulation environment, which includes real-time conditions management, graphical interfaces to operate the simulator, databases to store variables, and post-processing tools to visualize results. For control equipment testing applications an I/O data system is employed for the interaction between the simulator and the control equipment being tested. Comprehensive tests have been conducted and results compared with available plant data as validation. Three hydroelectric plants have been selected for tests: a 55 MW Pelton turbine plant, a 105 MW Kaplan turbine plant, and a 180 MW Francis turbine plant. A wide range of tests can be simulated, for example: turbine startup, disturbances in turbine speed or load, load rejection, electrical or mechanical trips, etc. Comparisons between calculations and plant data show in general relatively good agreement. A few selected tests are presented.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.