Cooling tower fill may be composed of wood or plastic, but it must provide adequate surface area for heat dissipation. Online and field water quality analysis can maximize tower efficiency and minimize maintenance. Uncontrolled levels of pH, bio-growth, or over-application of chemicals cause degradation of the material and plugging. Automatic control of pH conditioner can be accomplished with proven differential pH methods tied to analog and/or digital control. Oxidizing biocide application can be optimized with ORP and halogen analysis and control. Overuse of this type of biocide can also cause wood delignification that can affect the structural integrity of the tower. Another cause of fouling is excessive solids accumulation. Solids buildup can be minimized with side-stream filtration and/or clarification and monitored with low maintenance self-cleaning optical probes.

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