Engineers design plants with overall income and operating cost objectives in mind. Defining system requirements, component functions, and failure modes, they discern risks that drive design. Maintenance costs get considered as an afterthought. Misunderstanding significant equipment failure modes greatly changes profitability. Improving certainty of plant economic success requires reducing the risk of unknown failures. Unanticipated operating restrictions can hobble commercial production. Avoiding unanticipated problems sustains predictable costs and operations. Relational software can reduce economic operating risk during plant design to project and control operating risks and maintenance costs.

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