Green water and slamming wave impacts can lead to severe damage or operability issues for marine structures. It is therefore essential to consider their probability and loads in design. This is difficult, as impacts are both hydrodynamically complex and relatively rare. The complexity requires high-fidelity modelling (experiments or CFD), whereas a statistically sound analysis of rare events requires long durations. High-fidelity tools are too demanding to run a Monte-Carlo simulation; low-fidelity tools do not include sufficient physical details. The use of extreme value theory and / or multi-fidelity modelling is therefore required. The present paper reviews the state-of-the-art methods to find wave impact design loads, which include response-conditioning methods, screening methods and adaptive sampling methods. Their benefits and shortcomings are discussed, as well as challenges for the wave impact problem. One challenge is the role of wave non-linearity. Another is the validation of the different methods; it is hard to obtain long-duration high-fidelity wave impact data. A planned case study is introduced, where different techniques will be put to the test and these challenges will be addressed.

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