In this paper, the vibration characteristics of laminated composite cantilever beam is taken as the research object. Firstly, a vibration formula specific for laminated composite cantilever beam is derived, from which the low order natural frequency of laminated composite cantilever beam is calculated; Secondly, two experimental methods, electrical and optical measurement, are used to study the vibration characteristics of laminated composite cantilever beam, and the influence of different test methods, sensor types, number of measuring points and excitation methods on the test results are analyzed. Through the combination of theory and experiment, a test method that can be applied to the vibration test of composite material laminated structure cantilever beam is obtained. Based on the laser vibration measurement method in the optical method, the results show that the deviation between the experimental data and the theoretical solution is the smallest when the distance between the probe and the specimen is 0.5m and the sampling time is 5s by using the optical fiber vibrometer. The research content of this article can provide a reasonable reference for related vibration test research.