Abstract

Pipeline walking induced by transient temperature profiles as the pipeline heats up is assessed. Firstly, an integrated, closed-form solution is given for a problem for which only an ‘incremental’ solution was available [1]. This involves a short pipeline unrestrained at both ends subject to a linearly ramping temperature front.

Secondly, the range of validity of this solution is significantly extended, whilst still presenting it in closed-form. Results are compared with previously published FEA results, presenting remarkable agreement.

The closed-form analytical solution is then compared with FEA of more realistic transients (non-linear temperature front). Results show that the linear simplification can introduce excessive conservatism.

The FEA results are then examined, and the reason for the excessive conservatism is found to be associated to early expansion of the cold end, which is not observed with the simplified linear front. A simplified incremental solution for non-linear transients is proposed. This is shown to be simple and effective in improving prediction for the range over which where the closed form solution is most conservative.

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