Focusing on the model design and experimental method research of ultimate strength of ship hull typical section, a large ship with complex section structure was taken in this paper as the research object. The nonlinear analysis on the failure mode and ultimate strength of the hull structure were carried out. The similarity model for ultimate strength experiment was designed, and the validity of the similarity model in reflecting the ultimate bearing capacity of the real ship was verified. According to the experimental results, the ultimate strength experimental value was obtained by numerical conversion. The ultimate bearing capacity of the example ship was then checked with reference to several classification society rules to verify the structural safety of the ship hull.