The finite element method (FEM) based on the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model was used to investigate the ductile crack growth behavior at different weld joint locations in X80 pipeline steel. The X80 weld joints are inhomogeneous and can be divided into five different zones. By fitting the results of uniaxial tension and single-edge notched bending tests, the GTN model parameters were determined using FEM in consideration of the inhomogeneity of the weld joint. The calibrated GTN model was then used to analyze the fracture toughness in single-edge notched tension tests. The results show that the different weld joint zones produce different mechanical properties and crack growth resistance curves. To accurately assess the integrity of X80 weld joints, the calibrated GTN model is a reasonable method for obtaining fracture toughness data and resistance curves for different joint locations under different loading conditions.