In this paper, we use 3D discrete element method (DEM) to simulate ship penetration through a non-cohesive rubble pile presenting a ridge keel. We study the effect of the pile width on the rubble resistance and the relation between the resistance records and rubble deformation. The peak rubble resistance increases with the rubble pile width, but the rate of the increase is not constant. The peak rubble resistance values from the simulations with the widest rubble piles are compared to the ones yielded by the analytical models with success.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.