Experiments with both uni- and multidirectional wave realizations with a stiff pile subjected to extreme wave forces are considered. Differences in crest heights and force peaks resulting from directional spread waves are analysed. The wave realizations are reproduced numerically in the fully nonlinear wave model OceanWave3D. The numerical reproductions compare well to the experiments. Only for the largest forces significant differences are seen, which is due to a very simple breaking filter applied in OceanWave3D. In the wave spectra, the higher harmonics occur for smaller frequencies than the straight multiples of the peak frequency. Further, the higher harmonics of the multidirectional wave spectra contain less energy. Both effects can be explained by the second order wave theory. Finally, the computed wave kinematics are used to investigate the dynamic response of an offshore wind turbine. The excitation of the first natural frequency is largest for the unidirectional wave realizations, as the higher harmonics are largest for these realizations.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.