Japan imports coal from Indonesia, the main coal supplier in the Asia-Pacific region. Effective and efficient movement of coal down the Markham River in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and onto bulk carriers is challenging because the river is shallow and generally cannot accommodate bulk carriers. The primary transportation system comprises small barges that are shuttled back and forth between the inland barge ports along the river and bulk carriers offshore. This system is very time-consuming.

This paper proposes a large-scale floating coal transshipment station (LFTS) for loading, storing, and offloading coal. It will act as a relay base for barges and bulk carriers. Installing an LFTS offshore from East Kalimantan is expected to improve coal transport productivity. The proposed LFTS can store 5 times the capacity of one bulk carrier and can accommodate 2 bulk carriers at the same time during offloading. The LFTS is compartmentalized by bulkheads to segregate coal according to quality. This paper discusses LFTS static stability and its elastic deformation characteristics during coal loading operations.

In this study, linear potential theory and the finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the LFTS static hydroelastic motion. Due to the compartments, coal loading conditions can vary significantly and affect the local static deflection, so we modeled the overall deformation and rigidity under various operational scenarios. The results were compared to the allowable material stress to identify conditions that will produce material failure. Moreover, we evaluated operation in the shallow Kalimantan River, since the weight of loaded coal deepens the LFTS draft, reducing the clearance between the LFTS and sea bed. We found that this reduced clearance and large added mass impact the natural frequency of the LFTS.

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