Linear random wave theory (LRWT) is frequently used to simulate water particle kinematics at different nodes of an offshore structure from a reference surface elevation record. However, it is well known that LRWT leads to water particle kinematics with exaggerated high-frequency components in the vicinity of mean water level (MWL). A number of empirical techniques have been suggested to provide a more realistic representation of near surface wave kinematics. The empirical techniques popular in the offshore industry include Wheeler stretching, linear extrapolation, delta stretching, and vertical stretching. Each of these methods is intended to calculate sensible kinematics above the MWL, yet they have been found to differ from one another in the results yielded. In this paper, two new methods of simulating water particle kinematics are introduced. In this study, the values of 100-year responses derived from different methods of simulating wave kinematics are compared.

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