Ships navigating in ice-covered waters experience local and global ice loads due to ice-hull interaction. The design of a ship with good ice performance requires adequate assessment of these forces. Recently, an increased activity in developing numerical models of ice-hull interaction in level ice has been observed, owed to the increased computational capabilities. However, certain semi-empirical icebreaking patterns inevitably influencing the interaction process have been implemented in the majority of interaction models used for the assessment of ice performance of ships. Therefore, an attempt using a quasi-static numerical approach to model the initiation of icebreaking pattern in level ice has been made and is presented in this paper. The term initiation herein denotes the creation of circumferential cracks, disregarding thus the succeeding radial cracks.

The concept used in the model features a set of radially oriented ice beams at the interaction zone. The model accounts for the bow geometry and the properties of the encountered ice. The icebreaking pattern for a case study ship is simulated using the developed model. Lastly, this paper discusses the sensitivity of the model with respect to the bow shape.

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