The finite element model of ABAQUS combined with FORTRAN subroutines was developed to predict the residual stress and deformation of T-joint welds under different preheat and inter-pass temperature. A calibrated and sequentially coupled thermal and mechanical 3D finite element (FE) model is developed, and Goldak’s double ellipsoidal heat source model is implemented into the numerical model. The welding induced imperfections, including the residual stress and distortion are discussed in this paper. The results show that vertical deformation depend significantly on the preheat temperature and inter-pass temperature. The influences of preheat and interpass temperature on the residual stress are not significant.

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