Developments of oil and gas reservoirs in Bohai Sea, South China Sea etc., are presently accelerated, to cope with the significant increase in energy demand from the mainland, China. In recent developments in Bohai Sea, fluid temperature and pressure have been found dramatically being increased up to 100 °C and 20 MPa respectively. The fact that High Temperature and High Pressure (HTHP) in Bohai area brings design challenges, especially to jacket risers and spool pieces. Pipe-in-Pipe (PIP) flowline systems have been widely employed in this region and are continuously being considered for further developments. This is due to its significant thermal insulation capacity to deal with the High Temperature and High Pressure (HTHP) issue. To cope with the challenges induced by HPHT and structural complexity of PIP, COTEC Offshore Engineering Solutions, together with its mother company, China Offshore Oil Engineering Company, have developed a approach by using ABAQUS and AutoPIPE. This paper describes the relevant experience obtained during one development in Bohai Sea, BZ34-2/4 project containing dozens of risers and spool pieces. Two main parts are presented. Firstly, a beam-element based expansion calculation model adopting ABAQUS has been developed to achieve accurate HPHT induced expansions. The structural behavior of PIP can be represented in the developed model, meanwhile with minimum increase in modeling complexity. Secondly, practical and extensive parametric studies have been carried on the riser and spool flexibility against HPHT induced expansions. Since Bohai Sea has been developed extensively, many risers are post-installed and the existing of restriction areas practically enlarges the difficulties of anchor clamp and spool arrangements. Key parameters of these arrangements, such as Z/L shape, the length between two bends, the combinations of bend angles, the length of protection pipe on the riser etc. have been comprehensively investigated. “Gold” rules for rigid riser accessories arrangements and spool piece layout have been suggested accordingly.
Design Challenge of Rigid Riser-Spool Piece Against HTHP Induced Expansion in Pipe-in-Pipe Systems
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Wang, F, Gao, M, Wang, J, Zhang, Y, Jia, X, & Huang, J. "Design Challenge of Rigid Riser-Spool Piece Against HTHP Induced Expansion in Pipe-in-Pipe Systems." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Volume 6A: Pipeline and Riser Technology. San Francisco, California, USA. June 8–13, 2014. V06AT04A021. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2014-23351
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