The importance of including second-order nonlinear random wave kinematics in the numerical prediction of drag-induced shear forces and moments, at various levels on a bottom-fixed slender monopile in 40m water depth, is investigated. A vertical circular cylinder of diameter 0.5m is considered, representing typical dimensions of members in jacket type foundations of offshore wind turbines. The focus is here on the wave loads only, and wind and a propeller are therefore not included in this study. In particular, the main focus is on the effects from second-order random wave kinematics on the structural quasi-static time-varying loads due to drag forces in heavy storm wave conditions. Comparisons are made to the traditional use of Airy waves with various ways of stretching.
An in-house numerical FEM code developed for structural analysis, NIRWANA, is used for this study. Thus one purpose of the present work is also to verify the implementation of the second-order random waves in the code.
The results show significant effects, especially in the wave zone. Extreme crests are around 15%–20% increased, free-surface extreme particle velocities increase by around 30%–40%, while the velocities at levels below MWL are, on the other hand, somewhat reduced. The resulting peak shear forces, and in particular the moments, are thereby increased by typically 50%–100% in the upper parts of the column. At the base the peak shear forces are comparable to the traditional methods, while moments are still somewhat higher. Another effect is the generation of more high-frequency load contributions, which may be important to address further with respect to natural frequencies of such towers.