In this paper details of the measurement results of the forces on the bends in a 4″ setup are compared to two models. The first model is a simple analytical model and is used to estimate the forces. In the second model, CFD is used. In the experiments only resulting forces, including upstream and downstream bends and mechanical resonance and interaction is measured. The goal of the CFD was to discriminate between flow and mechanics and to evaluate the influence of a flow disturbance as a result of a bend on the force on a downstream second bend.
For the simplified analytical model the amplitudes are underestimated, but the frequency spectra look very reasonable in case of the slug flow regime. The main advantage of the simplified analytical model is that the computational time is in the order of seconds, but the accuracy is still reasonable for the use in an engineering approach of determining the structural integrity of the complete pipe system. For the CFD the shape of the force function is similar to the experiments. The CFD results indicate that the forces on the second downstream bend are also measured on the first upstream bend. The accuracy of the CFD simulation is the advantage of this model, but the computational time is very long, especially if the multiphase flow simulation is coupled to the structural model.