The effectiveness of electromagnetic (EM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic refraction (SR) were evaluated by surveying a shallow trench in which a number of objects of varying composition and size were buried. The trench was excavated in granular calcareous fill material. An experienced geophysical contractor was asked to provide blind predictions of object locations using each of the techniques in turn. GPR with a 400 MHz antenna was the most successful, followed by SR and EM surveying. GPR and SR were also carried out at the port of Hilo to investigate complex subsurface conditions.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.