In arctic pipeline projects, seismic risk and differential settlements are common, whether local or distributed across long stretches. For buried pipelines, seismic hazards are generally classified as wave propagation hazard (WP) or permanent ground deformation (PGD) hazard. Below ground crossing of seismic faults has been the real challenge in a series of pipeline projects. STress Based Design (STBD) criteria has been used in the past. Application of this method is straightforward as simple linear elastic analysis is required to calculate the load effects in the specified conditions. In the assessment of the structural integrity of a pipeline, load effects are compared with allowable states of stress. Unfortunately, unsatisfactory design, both from economic and safety points of view, may result. StraiN Based Design (SNBD) is an attractive option in these situations.
The use of SNBD in pipeline technology has been widely discussed during the last decade, particularly for offshore applications. In many instances the offshore pipeline engineer can adopt SNBD to avoid onerous measures necessary to meet the traditional STBD criteria. First introduced to make allowance for crossing bottom roughness and harsh environments, more recently for High Pressure/High Temperature (HP/HT) applications, SNBD is currently used in a series of strategic project developments in North America and East Siberia, for both offshore and land pipelines crossing regions affected by ice gouging and geo-hazards from seismic activity such as land slides, active faults, soil lateral spreading due to soil liquefaction etc. Conditions for which SNBD are applicable, as well as permissible deformations in relation to line pipe material and safe operation of the pipeline in the long run, are of major concern.
In this paper, the following is discussed:
• Relevant hazards for arctic land and offshore pipelines such as ice scouring, permafrost thaw, frost heave etc..
• The design approach and design philosophy for Buried Pipeline Crossing active faults. In particular:
○ The Pipeline Crossing Layout of local features to minimize Load Effects;
○ Material and Steel Wall Thickness Selection vs. Crossing Location;
○ Pipeline Deformation Capacity (PDC) Assessment;
○ Pipeline Strain Demand (PSD) Assessment;
○ Pipeline Trench Design including Shape, Back-filling etc. vs. Pipe-Soil and Temperature Effects.