The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low temperatures on the material properties and crashworthiness of ASTM A131-type carbon steel. A series of tensile coupon tests and crushing tests on square tubes were performed in a liquid nitrogen cooled chamber to examine their material behavior and crashing behavior at a series of low temperatures under quasistatic conditions. The temperature conditions cover a cryogenic condition, the typical Arctic temperatures and room temperature.
In the previous study, ASTM A500-type carbon steel is considered  and in present study the different grades of ASTM A131-type carbon steel for ships and offshore structures are considered, including Grades A, B and D of mild steel and Grades AH and DH of high tensile steel.
The results of the tensile coupon tests showed an increase in the strength and in non-uniform fracture strain behavior in different grades and temperatures. Unstable crushing behavior and fractures were observed in the crushing tests. LS-DYNA nonlinear finite element method analyses were performed using reliable nonlinear finite element method modeling techniques to assess the structural crashworthiness of the materials at low temperatures.