Accurate prediction on the behaviour of the nonlinear waves in a coastal environment is vital to the safe design and performance of coastal defence. This paper is concerned with the description of tsunami wave-island interaction, and includes both linear and nonlinear modelling of the maximum free surface motion arising within distorted flow field. A deterministic nonlinear effect on the predicted maximum runup is examined using a Boussinesq-type model. Statistics of the predicted maximum leading-crest motion are obtained and discussed in light of linear diffraction theory. The results show that the predicted maximum runup and free surface motion by the quaternary-islands is affected by nonlinear wave transformation. The numerical simulations suggest that the present model describes the wave field very accurately even for extreme events. The present study provides a critical insight into the free surface elevation maxima at surf zone, thus safeguarding the structure design.

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