The loading and unloading operation of a LNG carrier is dependent on the perfect performance of the loading/unloading equipment, such as valves, tanks and pipes. The rupture of a ship pipeline (part of the manifold or other secondary pipes) used for LNG loading or unloading can cause the leakage of the fluid causing not only the complete stop of the loading or unloading operation but also exposing the ship and other terminal facilities to a risk associated with LNG leakage. The paper applies structural reliability concepts to evaluate the probability of failure of a pipeline due to the presence of a crack in the pipe wall. The analysis considers the probability of occurrence of brittle fracture associated with a through thickness crack propagation. The limit state function as for brittle fracture analysis is presented and as for reliability analysis three random variables are considered: material fracture toughness, crack size and pipe thickness. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to calculate the probability of failure. Based on those results, the paper proposes the use of the cause-consequence diagram to evaluate the accident scenarios associated with the pipe rupture, which failure probability was previously calculated. The events that appear in the diagram are associated with alarm and control systems that are used as monitoring system for loading and unloading operations. Those failure probabilities can be calculated using reliability database. The consequences of each scenario can be defined based on literature review. The main analysis result will be the risk profile associated with a pipe brittle fracture. The method is used for the analysis of a LNG carrier operating in a Brazilian harbor.
Probabilistic Risk Analysis of a LNG Carrier Loading Pipeline
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de Souza, GFM, Hidalgo, EMP, Silva, DWR, & Martins, MR. "Probabilistic Risk Analysis of a LNG Carrier Loading Pipeline." Proceedings of the ASME 2012 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Volume 2: Structures, Safety and Reliability. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. July 1–6, 2012. pp. 621-630. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2012-84018
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