The current demand in liquefied natural gas (LNG) from remote marine locations drives the design of floating LNG (FLNG) liquefaction or regasification facilities, where LNG is transferred to shuttle carriers (LNGC). During the loading procedure, which takes about 18–24 hours for a standard sized LNGC, free fluid surfaces and varying filling levels occur inside the internal cargo tanks. This condition is critical since the seakeeping behavior of the LNGC — especially the roll motion — is strongly influenced and varying. In order to estimate and forecast the LNGC motions, numerical methods based on potential theory are the most efficient and appropriate method. The selected approach is validated by model tests at 30% water filling height inside four prismatic tanks. In-depth analyses, including force and moment measurements between tanks and hull, revealed a discrepancy between the analytical natural modes of a prismatic tank and the resonance frequencies for four prismatic tanks mounted to a LNGC hull. This effect is caused by the ratio of rigid to added mass of the system as well as the fact that the tanks are mounted to a standard hull shape featuring a longitudinal bow-stern asymmetry. In order to investigate this phenomenon systematically, surface elevations inside the tanks and natural modes for a symmetric cuboid hull are compared to results for a standard LNGC hull, both with the same main dimensions. The influence of the tank positions is also considered by comparing the original (longitudinally asymmetric) LNGC tank positions on the cuboid hull to an exactly symmetric arrangement.
Sloshing: From Theory to Offshore Operations
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Clauss, GF, Sprenger, F, Dudek, M, & Testa, D. "Sloshing: From Theory to Offshore Operations." Proceedings of the ASME 2012 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Volume 1: Offshore Technology. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. July 1–6, 2012. pp. 9-20. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2012-83015
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