Whereas the wall thickness for most pipelines is governed by internal pressure, the wall thickness of pipelines at very deep waters may be governed by external pressure and the failure mode is collapse. This paper will firstly summarise the work performed in the early 90ties in the SUPERB project that constitutes the basis for the collapse equation adopted in DNV Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems. This work documented a comparison between various expressions for collapse prediction (Timoshenco, Murphy and Langner (Shell) and Haugsmaa (BSI)) to available experimental results. This work made it possible to select the formulation deemed to be most appropriate as a design equation as well as calibrating safety factors. Secondly, the paper will discuss the well documented detrimental effect that pipe forming can have on the compressive yield strength in the hoop direction and thus the collapse capacity of pipes. This effect led to the introduction of the so-called fabrication factor in DNV-OS-F101 that reduces the compressive yield strength by 7–15 per cent for pipes manufactured using cold forming. However, DNV-OS-F101 states “The fabrication factor may be improved through heat treatment or external cold sizing (compression), if documented” and the paper will summarise various published work, experimental and analyses, that has, during the last 15 years, been performed in several pipeline projects to document the beneficial effect that mainly light heat treatment but also optimised forming in the UOE process have on the compressive yield stress and collapse capacity.

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