This paper describes the development of three candidate hull forms for 190,000 DWT ore carrier for operation in ice covered water. It builds on Hyundai Heavy Industries expertise in ore carrier design, and discusses some of the changes required for operation in heavy ice conditions. The overall concept was to have a target speed of 6 knots in land fast ice 1.7m thick and 15 knots in open water. Three candidate bow shapes were designed and analyzed, based on a common stern arrangement. The development of the hull form included three methods of predicting the performance of the ships in ice. Empirical analysis was carried out for all three hulls, based on experience gained from model experiments on bulk carrier hull forms in ice. Numerical analysis was carried out on all three bow shapes using a computer program (based on the discrete element method) to simulate the interaction between the ship and the ice. Physical model experiments were carried out for resistance and propulsion in level ice, pack ice and ridges on the selected design. As a result of the model experiments, the selected bow shape was modified to reduce its resistance in ice. The improved performance of the modified hull was confirmed with additional numerical simulations.

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