A series of experiments have been carried out at Oregon State University to quantify tsunami bore forces on structures. Phase 1 of the tests was carried out in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB), while Phase II of the tests were carried out in the Large Wave Flume (LWF) at approximately twice the scale of the Phase I tests. These latter tests included ‘offshore’ solitary waves, with heights up to 1.3 m, that traveled over a flat bottom, up a sloping beach and breaking onto a flat ‘fringing reef’. Standing water depths on the reef varied from 0.05 m to 0.3 m. Resulting bores on the reef measured up to approximately 0.8 m. After propagating along the reef, the bores struck a vertical wall. The resulting forces and pressures on the wall were measured. The test setup for the Phase II tests in the LWF is described and the experimental results are reported. The results include forces and pressure distributions. Results show that the bores propagated with a Froude number of approximately 2, and that the forces follow Froude scaling. Finally, a design formula for the maximum impact force is given. The formula is shown to be an improvement over existing formulas found in the literature. The lateral forces are shown to be quite significant compared to traditional lateral loads on vertical wall elements.

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