Submersibles used for exploration, maintenance and naval warfare have to be both manoeuvrable and easy to control. Simulation of the trajectory for these vessels requires the accurate determination of the hydrodynamic forces and moments which are determined by model-testing, empirical methods or a combination of both. CFD can play a role here by permitting an easier and more accurate determination of these loads. In this paper we focus on the accurate prediction of the manoeuvring forces of free swimming streamlined submersibles (submarines) using CFD. We compare simulations of a standardised well-known submarine shape (DARPA SUBOFF) for two configurations, one bare hull (AFF-1) and one fully-appended hull (AFF-8), under different inflow angles. The viscous-flow solvers used are the finite volume solver ReFRESCO developed by MARIN, and the finite element commercial solver AcuSolve. Verification studies are performed and the numerical results are validated with the experimental data available in the literature. The influence of different turbulence models is investigated and results obtained with a RANS (Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes) approach are compared with the theoretically more realistic DDES (Delayed-Detached-Eddy-Simulation) results. The influence of the appendages on the forces and flow fields is also investigated and analysed. As a last example, results of a forced pitch motion including dynamic effects are presented.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.