We perform direct numerical simulations to simulate the interaction between surface waves and the turbulence underneath. The Navier–Stokes equations are simulated using a pseudo-spectral method in horizontal directions and a finite-difference method in vertical direction, with fully nonlinear viscous free-surface kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions at the free surface. We set up the turbulence and the waves by a random forcing method in the bulk flow and a pressure forcing method at the surface, which were recently developed by [1]. It is found that there are surface waves generated on the free surface due to the excitation by the turbulence. The surface elevation is sensitive to the effect of gravity and surface tension. In the presence of progressive waves at the free surface, the turbulent vortical structure is turned, stretched, and compressed periodically by the strain field of waves.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.