The Persian Gulf connects to the Indian Ocean via the Strait of Hormuz. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) is employed in a fully prognostic mode to derive sound velocity profiles in the Persian Gulf, an evaporation-driven inverse estuary that is governed by import of surface water from the adjacent ocean and export of saline bottom gulf water through the Strait of Hormuz. During spring and summer, a cyclonic overturning circulation establishes along the full length of the Gulf. During autumn and winter, this circulation breaks up into mesoscale eddies, laterally stirring most of the Gulf’s surface waters. Output of the model shows that sound velocity in the Persian Gulf depends mainly on the temperature in the surface layer whereas the bottom layer as well as the southern part of the Gulf depends on temperature and salinity. Maximum sound velocity occurs during summer in the Persian Gulf which decreases gradually moving from Strait of Hormuz to the north western part of the Gulf. A gradual decrease in sound velocity profiles with depth was commonly observed almost at all stations in the Gulf. However, an exception occurred in Strait of Hormuz during winter. The results of the model are very close to previous observations.

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