Gas hydrates are ice-like crystalline systems made of water and methane that are stable under high pressure and low temperature conditions. Gas hydrates have been identified as strategic resources and may surpass all known oil and gas reserves combined. However, these resources will become reserves only if the gas contained therein can be produced economically. In the oil and gas industry, gas hydrates may be encountered while drilling sediments of the subsea continental slopes and in the subsurface of permafrost regions. They also represent a flow assurance issue, as they may form in the well and in the flowlines, causing blockages. Deepwater drilling programmes have experienced problems when encountering gas hydrate formations. A major issue is that of phase transition, where gas hydrate goes from a solid state to dissociated gas and water, as there are rapid changes in fluid volumes and pressure. This can cause drilling equipment failure, borehole instability and formation collapse. After dissociation of water and gas, hydrates may be prevented from forming in the well by using appropriate inhibitors in the drilling mud. There is a need to develop fluids specifically for drilling through gas hydrate formations, either to unlock the unconventional reserves trapped in the crystalline gas hydrate structures or to safely reach underlying conventional reserves. To drill wells in a gas hydrate formation, a conductor casing is needed to allow close loop circulation of the mud, if different from seawater. The search for the ideal mud for drilling through gas hydrate formations must start with a review of past experiences worldwide and of the lessons learned. This paper presents a review of the problems encountered while drilling through gas hydrate formations. It identifies the key requirements for drilling fluids, based on the interaction between the drill bit, the drilling fluid and the formation. An evaluation of the environmental risk associated with drilling through gas hydrate formations is also presented.
Investigation of Drilling Problems in Gas Hydrate Formations
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Teodoriu, C, Falcone, G, & Afolabi, A. "Investigation of Drilling Problems in Gas Hydrate Formations." Proceedings of the ASME 2008 27th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Volume 1: Offshore Technology. Estoril, Portugal. June 15–20, 2008. pp. 389-393. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2008-57438
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