Ice engineering projects often rely on the knowledge of ice thickness in shallow, brackish water like in the Baltic and Caspian Seas. By means of field data and model results, the paper shows that helicopter-borne electromagnetic induction measurements using frequencies of 3.68 and 112 kHz can yield accurate thickness estimates with salinities as low as 3 ppt. The higher frequency yields the strongest EM signals. In addition, in shallow water the higher frequency is less sensitive to the sea floor signal, and can thus be used in water depths as shallow as 4 to 6 m, depending on flying altitude. Because the low frequency signal is very sensitive on shallow water depth, a combination of both signals will allow the retrieval of both ice thickness and water depth.
- Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division
Airborne Electromagnetic Sea Ice Thickness Sounding in Shallow, Brackish Water Environments of the Caspian and Baltic Seas
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Haas, C. "Airborne Electromagnetic Sea Ice Thickness Sounding in Shallow, Brackish Water Environments of the Caspian and Baltic Seas." Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Volume 2: Ocean Engineering and Polar and Arctic Sciences and Technology. Hamburg, Germany. June 4–9, 2006. pp. 717-722. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2006-92369
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