The possible sources causing weld metal hydrogen and oxygen pick-up during offshore hyperbaric tie-in TIG welding have been identified and simulated at a hyperbaric chamber pressure of 12 bar, i.e. 110 meter sea depth. The base material was supermartensitic 13% Cr stainless steel. Matching filler wire was used. The weld metal hydrogen and oxygen pick-up from water vapor in the shielding and chamber gases has been investigated by girth welding of pipes. Moist chamber gas seems to have insignificant effect on hydrogen and oxygen pick-up. The largest contribution is from moist shielding gas. Most of the hydrogen content in the supermartensitic welds is diffusible. By applying post-heat, it is possible to reduce the hydrogen content in the weld metal. Microcracks in the cap were observed for welds deposited with 14 mbar water vapor in the shielding gas (117 ppm) and above. Microcracks in the root welds were not observed, which was also confirmed for self restrained cracking tests. During constant load test at 150 MPa simulating hydrostatic testing of pipelines, the microcracks grew, and for the weld deposited with fully moistened shielding gas (175 ppm), a macrocrack appeared in the centre of the capping pass longitudinally to the welding direction. Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) values based on Single Edge Notched Bend (SENB) testing were all low, and the high constraint of the SENB specimen did not show any effects of hydrogen on fracture toughness. CTOD values based on Single Edge Notched Tension (SENT) testing decreased with increasing shielding gas moisture contents. For specimens without microcracks it was possible to increase the CTOD (SENT) values by post-heat, close to the toughness observed for specimens deposited with dry shielding gas.
- Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering Division
Hydrogen and Oxygen Pick-Up in Hyperbaric TIG Welding of Supermartensitic 13% Cr Stainless Steel With Matching Filler Wire
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Aune, R, Knagenhjelm, HO, & Ha˚rsvær, AS. "Hydrogen and Oxygen Pick-Up in Hyperbaric TIG Welding of Supermartensitic 13% Cr Stainless Steel With Matching Filler Wire." Proceedings of the ASME 2005 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering: Volume 3. Halkidiki, Greece. June 12–17, 2005. pp. 289-296. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2005-67544
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