Hierarchical designs of biological structures have remarkable physical, chemical mechanical and biological properties and functionalities over the wide range of length scales [1–4]. Man-made nanocomposites have dramatic improvement of the structural and mechanical properties but however they have very limited hierarchy [5]. Fish scales are bone-like tissues, which form a protective layer on the body of the fish and enable the fish to swim efficiently. Bones and bone-like parts in living organism are formed as tissues by self-assembly of bio-minerals and protein matrix. These tissues are bio-nanocomposites and have hierarchical structure ranging from nanoscale to macroscale [2–4]. Bio-hierarchy contains different bio-macromolecules, bio-minerals, interfacial bonds and porosity which result in gradient mechanical properties at multiple length scales [1–6]. Fish scale consists of inorganic bio-minerals and organic collagens [3,4]. Multilevel hierarchy influences elasticity, hardness and fracture toughness of fish scale. They have additional functions related to movement including reduction or increase of drag [7] and rapid manoeuvre while they are hunting or avoiding predators. In this article we report comparison studies of hierarchical nanocomposite of sardina pilchardus(sp) fish scale and man-made SiO2 nanoparticles filled nanocomposites.

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