Tissue engineering (TE) is evolving as a potential solution for repair and reconstruction of diseased or damaged tissues. TE faces major manufacturing challenges: manufacturing techniques are needed to mimic tissue and extra cellular matrix (ECM) architecture, with high resolution (less than 10 μm) for tissues such as myocardium (heart muscle), blood vessels, bone or nerves; innovative methods are needed for delivery of cells and growth factors into scaffolds; and manufacturing techniques are needed to create vascular structure in tissue construct; lack of nutrient transport currently limits the size and cellular content of implants.

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