This paper describes the development of a new method for measuring pass-by sound from trucks and other vehicles using 2-dimensional arrays. The approach provides 2-dimensional quantitative maps “images” of the cross-range and elevation distribution in the vehicle side view. The method is an application and extension of an array technology that was originally used for the characterization of static aeroacoustic sources in wind tunnels. The focus of this work is on identifying and rank-ordering the important contributing sources of passby noise. This development includes two phases: developmental testing at a test track site, and road-side testing at two California State highway sites. The acquisition post-processing allows the “observer” to track the vehicle cross-range in order to create a time sequence of source maps that may be interpreted as both level relationships and directivity patterns. The processing applies both range and approximate Doppler adjustments to spectra as a function of time during pass-by or, equivalently, to vehicle position relative to the array’s center. An image demodulation scheme is shown to clarify the images. The initial phase of this work occurred at a test track using known “cooperative” truck sources. This experience permitted the verification of the method and the definition of a final measurement approach that was viable at a highway site. Subjects were all trucks that varied in model, vehicle speed, tread, and the presence of a trailer. The array beamformer’s ability to localize and the measurement system’s ability to track were validated using both stationary and moving sources. Following validation at the test track site, the instrumentation was transferred to two California highway sites. There, acoustic calibration was used to align the array with the road track and to provide a spatial reference for mapping the “images”. Both light and heavy vehicles at these sites were “uncooperative” with arrivals and speeds randomly determined by traffic flow. This work was funded by the California Department of Transportation.

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