Refractory systems are used for tube wall protection in waste-to-energy (WTE) boilers. Through the years, continuous adjustments have been made to the refractory materials and product designs. Design modifications have incrementally improved tile systems from bolt-on to hidden-clip to back-cast systems. Different refractory types, such as gunning cements and other monolithics, have also been used with varying degrees of success. A new refractory system is currently evolving, borrowed from other advanced high temperature applications and adapted to fit WTE boiler designs. This new system is a radical change in design from conventional refractory systems.

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