High-energy recovery combined with low emissions to air and water was targeted when Jo¨nko¨ping Energi planned their new Waste to Energy plant at Torsvik in Sweden. The plant is compliant with the new EU Industry Directive and the Waste Frame Directive R-formula, which defines energy recovery levels for recycle of energy. In total about 160 000 tons of municipal (40%) and commercial waste (60%) is annually converted into usable energy. The average heat value is 11,7 MJ/kg. The energy produced is a combination of electricity (14 MWe) and heat (42–56 MWth, depending on electricity production). The heat is recovered both in a boiler and in a condenser. The flue gas condensing system is combined with a heat pump (10 MWth) to optimize the heat recovery rate. The plant is designed to fulfill the requirements set by the Swedish authorities, which are more stringent than the EU emission requirements. Some examples of the plant emissions to air guarantees: dust 5, HCl 5, SO2 20, HF1, Hg 0,03, Cd+Tl 0,05, other HM 0,5 all in mg/Nm3 and dioxin 0,05 ng/Nm3. The flue gas cleaning upstream of the condenser consists of a combination of a semi-dry system and a wet scrubber. The gas cleaning system operating range goes from 60 000 up to 127 000 Nm3/h depending on load and fuel heat value. The semi-dry system is carrying out the major part of the gas cleaning and is sufficient to comply with the air regulations. However, in order to minimize the treatment of the condensate from the condenser the wet scrubber is installed after the semi-dry system and upstream the condenser. The blow down from the scrubber is reused within the plant. Thus the polishing scrubber secures minimal treatment of the condensate to comply with the local stringent limits, particular chlorides, before release to the recipient lake Munksjo¨n. Emissions to water were 2010 nitrogen 1,7 mg/l, Cl <3,6 mg/l, As 0,66 μg/l, Cd <0,07 μg/l, Cr <6 μg/l, Cu 0,8 μg/l, Hg <0,4 μg/l, Ni <0,66 μg/l, Pb<1,2 μg/l, Tl<1,3 μg/l, Zn<7,2 μg/l and PCDD/PCDF 0,0088 ng/l. In the wet scrubber acid stage residual HCl and excess ammonia from the SNCR system are removed. The latter compound is important to capture in order to prevent eutrophication. The combination of a semidry and a wet system enables an optimization of the flue gas cleaning with regard to the different operating situations, taking into account seasonal demand variations as well as fuel alterations. The concept has demonstrated very low emissions combined with low consumption of lime. The possibility to optimize the flue gas cleaning performance is a prerequisite for minimal condensate treatment and optimal energy recovery. The paper will describe the system and the operating experiences.
- Materials and Energy Recovery Division
Novel Gas Cleaning With Integrated Energy Recovery
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Herrlander, B. "Novel Gas Cleaning With Integrated Energy Recovery." Proceedings of the 19th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference. 19th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. May 16–18, 2011. pp. 205-208. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/NAWTEC19-5415
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