Conversion technologies (CTs) utilize thermal or biological processes to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) or Material Recovery Facility (MRF) residuals into useful products, such as electricity, fertilizers, and chemicals. These technologies, such as pyrolysis, gasification, and anaerobic digestion are very different from conventional waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies for MSW. CTs can provide greater efficiency and environmental benefits compared to WTE, and environmental and societal benefits compared to landfilling.

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