Waste management in the United States presently has the following major three dimensions: Sanitary landfills, recycling, waste to energy predominantly based on the technologies of mass bum technology or refuse derived fuel. These three dimensions have undergone significant evolution during the past three decades. The design of sanitary landfills has evolved to include environmental protection features such as bottom liners, leachate collection systems and landfill gas management systems. Material recycling programs, many based on materials recycling facilities, have become more prevalent. Approximately 100 operating waste to energy facilities (“Facilities”) now exist in the United States. Improvements in the air pollution control systems incorporated in the Facilities have significantly lowered their air emissions. A fourth dimension, waste gasification technology, is evolving as a viable component of a waste management system and the hydrogen energy economy.

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