Sustainable cities require the generation of electrical energy from those fractions of wastes that cannot be economically reused or recycled, including the “carbon dioxide neutral” biomass components. The energy content of these solid materials can be recovered by burning directly or after processing into refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Alternatively, the combustion process can be staged by the production of intermediate fuels using either pyrolysis or gasification. Co-processing of the material with coal generally increases plant utilisation and thus reduces costs.

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