All incineration and other thermal treatment technologies produce flue gas treatment residues (FGTR) that require specialised treatment and disposal. In the United Kingdom the FGTR arising from municipal solid waste incineration is classified as a hazardous (special) waste. This is primarily due to the irritant properties of chloride, but also due to the content of heavy metals. These wastes must be handled, transported & disposed of in accordance with the Special Waste Regulations 1996 and are disposed into highly engineered landfill sites, which isolate the material from the environment. The low levels of trace elements in the FGTR mean that the recycling of the metallic elements is not economic. Control through stabilisation and encapsulation in a crystalline matrix converts the FGTR primary form from a powder into solid block form. The use of a novel metal matrix encapsulation (MME) process allows low level engineering processes to be employed, increasing a range of reuse options combined with long-term improved storage.

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