Over the last two decades, a variety of micro-robotic systems have been developed including electrothermal, electrostatic, electrochemical, piezoelectric, and electromagnetic actuators based on MEMS technology. The development of these micro-actuators promises a revolution in biological and medical research and applications analogous to that brought about by the miniaturization of electrical devices in information technology. For example, controllable manipulation of these tiny actuators may enable precise temporal and spatial delivery of chemicals, micro-optics or microelectronics to specific targeted sites.

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