Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that produces a physical object directly from a CAD design using layer-by-layer deposition of the filament material that is extruded via a nozzle. In industry, FDM has become one of the most used AM processes for the production of low batch quantity and functional prototypes, due to its safety, efficiency, reliability, low cost, and ability to process manufacturing-grade engineering thermoplastic. Recently, the market is flooded with the availability of low-cost printers produced by numerous companies. This research aims to investigate the effect of different porosity levels on a scaffold structure produced using a low-cost 3D printer. Comparisons of these porous structures were made in terms of Von-Mises strain, total deformation, as well as compressive stress. Various porosity levels were created by varying printing parameters, including layer height, infill density, and shell thickness by slicing the initial solid CAD file using Repetier Host 3D printing software. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation was then performed on the created scaffold structures by using Ansys Workbench 19.2. The simulation result indicates that the greater porosity level will result in higher total deformation of the structure. Meanwhile, the compression test shows that the minimum strength value obtained was favourable at 22 MPa and had exceeded that of the trabecular femur (15 MPa). However, its porosity level (maximum at 52%) was still below that of the minimum threshold of porosity level of 70 percent. However, the printing parameters currently used can be adjusted in the future. Therefore, it was deduced that the low-cost 3D printer offers promising potential to fabricate different porosity structures with multiple outcomes.

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