There is a growing interest in developing the dry EDM process as a sustainable alternative to the conventional liquid dielectric-based EDM process. It is shown that the dry EDM process possesses advantages over the conventional process in terms of thermal damage, recast layer, and tool wear. However, there is a need to increase the productivity of the dry EDM process for its successful adaptation in the industry. This paper presents a model of dry EDM plasma discharge with air as the dielectric medium. The model uses global modeling (‘0D’) approach in which equations of mass balance, energy balance, and plasma expansion are solved simultaneously to obtain a time-dependent description of the plasma in terms of its composition, temperature, diameter, and heat flux to electrodes. The model includes reaction kinetics involving 622 reactions and 55 species to determine the air plasma composition. A single discharge dry EDM operation is successfully simulated using the model, and the effect of discharge current on the plasma is studied. An increase in the discharge current increases the electron density, temperature, and diameter of the plasma linearly, while heat flux to the workpiece increases exponentially. Overall, the model provides an essential tool to study the dry EDM process mechanisms at a fundamental level and devise methods for process improvements.

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