Abstract

Due to continuous push towards environmental regulations to reduce the impact on the environment by reducing the fuel consumption, and concerns on limited resources, the more sustainable manufacturing is in demand. More abundance material like iron-carbon based alloy are higher strength and easily formable but ways are research to reduce the weight of created part by reducing the thickness due to density issue. Some low dense material is the alternatives but they miss the easy to deform spot. The present study is focused on how to make the material more deformable in the process by evaluating the parameters in deformation through the hole expansion process. For this study, four tests were chosen hemispherical dome test, cylindrical tool test, conical tool test, and biaxial test. In all tests, only the biaxial test machine does not use the rigid tool to deform the hole while all other test used the rigid tool punch to deform the hole. Cruciform specimen dimension was used to make the sample, which fits in all of the considered tests. A hole was created at the center of the specimen which will be expanded in all tests. In all tests the deformation mechanics and hole expansion was studied. Force-displacement curves were plotted and discussed. In addition, tests were also performed on annealed material to understand the hole expansion in ductile material. Based on the results it was observed that biaxial tests do not provide any pressurization effect and all test which includes the rigid tool to deform the hole does. Due to the pressurization effect, the hole was expanded more. It was also noted that the hole expansion was more in ductile material and pressurization effect increases with ductile material.

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