Abstract

In metal cutting processes the use of cutting fluids shows significant effects on workpiece surface quality by reducing thermomechanical loads on cutting tool and workpiece. Many efforts are made to model these thermomechanical processes, however without considering detailed heat transfer between cutting fluid, tool and workpiece. To account for heat transfer effects, a coupling approach is developed which combines CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and FEM (Finite Element Method) chip formation simulation. Prior to the simulation, experimental investigations in orthogonal cutting in dry and wet cutting conditions with two different workpiece materials (AISI 1045 and DA 718) are conducted. To measure the tool temperature in dry as well as in wet cutting conditions, a two color pyrometer is placed inside a EDM drilled cutting tool hole. Besides tool temperature, the cutting force is recorded during the experiments and later used to calculate heat source terms for the CFD simulation. After the experiments, FEM chip formation simulations are performed and provide the chip forms for the CFD mesh generation. In general, CFD simulation and experiment are in reasonable agreement, as for each workpiece setup the measured temperature data is located between the simulation results from the two different tool geometries. Furthermore, numerical and experimental results both show a decrease of tool temperature in wet cutting conditions, however revealing a more significant cooling effect in a AISI 1045 workpiece setup. The results suggest that the placement of drilling holes has a major influence on the local tool temperature distribution, as the drilling hole equals a thermal resistance and hence leads to elevated temperatures at the tool front.

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