This paper aims at providing a state-of-the-art review of an increasingly important class of joining technologies called solid-state welding. Among many other advantages such as low heat input, solid-state processes are particularly suitable for dissimilar materials joining. In this paper, major solid-state joining technologies such as the linear and rotary friction welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding, impact welding, are reviewed, as well as diffusion and roll bonding. For each technology, the joining process is first depicted, followed by the process characterization, modeling and simulation, monitoring/diagnostics/NDE, and ended with concluding remarks. A discussion section is provided after reviewing all the technologies on the common critical factors that affect the solid-state processes such as the joining mechanisms, chemical and materials compatibility, surface properties, and process conditions. Finally, the future outlook is presented.

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