A multi-scale modeling framework is developed in this work to simulate the transport phenomena and grain growth in Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316. A three-dimensional (3D) model is included to simulate the transient molten pool geometry and heat/mass transfer on a macro-scale; and a 3D meso-scale model based on the Cellular Automata method is included to predict the grain growth during molten pool solidification. The predicted grain structure is found to be consistent with the experimental results and reveals that the grain structure is highly dependent on the molten pool geometry.

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