This study characterizes the forces in high-speed bone cutting and grinding for the use of haptic devices in surgical simulations. Unrealistic force feedback due to the lack of vibrational features is one of the most common drawbacks. Generally, the force profile can be decomposed to a mean force and a vibrational force magnitude. These forces are experimentally measured under various motions, including feed rate and tool orientation, to mimic manual operations and to understand the effects of these parameters. Change in feed rate was found to be insignificant in the overall force feedback, while the change in tool orientation showed statistically significant effects. The grinding burr and cutting burr also exhibited different forces under an identical condition. The explanation for the behavior of the forces based on the cutting and grinding conditions is discussed along with the results.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.